How Powerful Was Ar-Pharazon’s Numenor?

Population growth Maximum theoretical population This is the maximum population that island of Numenor could support with its resources. Land area of Numenor is some 167 961 square miles, or 435 017 square kilometers. France in 1345 – the medieval height of its population – had 20 million people, with area of maybe 550 000... Continue Reading →

Military Organization of Rohan

Organization Riders of Rohan are organized into eoreds, and are professional soldiers: "had no precisely fixed number, but in Rohan it was only applied to Riders, fully trained for war: men serving for a term, or in some cases permanently, in the King's Host. Any considerable body of such men, riding as a unit in... Continue Reading →

Military Organization of Gondor (Expanded)

Geography and organization For mobilizing its armies, Gondor uses a beacon system. This system is similar to that of Byzantine Empire, which had a line of beacons stretching from eastern Anatolia to Constantinople. System stretched 400 miles, with beacons set 30 to 60 miles apart; signal would travel the line in an hour. When beacons... Continue Reading →

How Powerful Was Gondor At Its Height

Imrahil's Statement In Return of the King, Prince Imrahil notes that the 7 000 strong force would have been a "vanguard" of Gondor's army in time of its greatest strength. This, in context, refers to field army only. To determine total manpower of Gondor's armies at the time, some comparisons will need to be made;... Continue Reading →

Military Organization of Mordor

Armies of Mordor Issue of free will and discipline Orcs are sometimes believed to not have free will, but this appears to be incorrect. Witch-King commands with fear, which would be unnecessary if orcs had no free will at all: "His own folk quail at him, and they would slay themselves at his bidding.". Even... Continue Reading →

Navy in Middle-Earth

Introduction Despite not featuring prominently, navy and naval operations play a significant role in Tolkien's Middle Earth. In the First Age, elves of Feanor come to Middle Earth from Valinor across the sea; their kinsmen, who had been forced to use the land route, suffer terribly. In the last battle of the Age, host of... Continue Reading →

Military organization of Gondor

There is not much detail regarding military structure and organization of Gondor in Lord of the Rings, as Tolkien set out to write an epic, not a history book. Yet a lot can be gleamed about it from careful reading and comparison with Tolkien's historical sources. Almost all we know of military organization of Gondor... Continue Reading →

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